QIC Abstracts

 Vol.15 No.13&14, October 1, 2015

Research Articles:

On the non-locality of tripartite non-signaling boxes emerging from wirings (pp1081-1108)
Jan Tuziemski and Karol Horodecki
It has been recently shown, that some of the tripartite boxes admitting bilocal decomposition, lead to non-locality under wiring operation applied to two of the subsystems [R. Gallego {\it et al.} Physical Review Letters {\bf 109}, 070401 (2012)]. In the following, we study this phenomenon quantitatively. Basing on the known classes of boxes closed under wirings, we introduce multipartite monotones which are counterparts of bipartite ones - the non-locality cost and robustness of non-locality. We then provide analytical lower bounds on both the monotones in terms of the Maximal Non-locality which can be obtained by Wirings (MWN). We prove also upper bounds for the MWN of a given box, based on the weight of boxes signaling in a particular direction, that appear in its fully bilocal decomposition. We study different classes of partially local boxes (i.e. having local variable model with respect to some grouping of the parties). For each class the MWN is found, using the Linear Programming. The wirings which lead to the MWN and exhibit that some of them can serve as a witness of the certain classes are also identified. We conclude with example of partially local boxes being analogue of quantum states that allow to distribute entanglement in separable manner.

Characterization and properties of weakly optimal entanglement witnesses (pp1109-1121)
Bang-Hai Wang, Hai-Ru Xu, Steve Campbell, and Simone Severini
We present an analysis of the properties and characteristics of weakly optimal entanglement witnesses, that is witnesses whose expectation value vanishes on at least one product vector. Any weakly optimal entanglement witness can be written as the form of $W^{wopt}=\sigma-c_{\sigma}^{max} I$, where $c_{\sigma}^{max}$ is a non-negative number and $I$ is the identity matrix. We show the relation between the weakly optimal witness $W^{wopt}$ and the eigenvalues of the separable states $\sigma$. Further we give an application of weakly optimal witnesses for constructing entanglement witnesses in a larger Hilbert space by extending the result of [P. Badzi\c{a}g {\it et al}, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 88}, 010301(R) (2013)], and we examine their geometric properties.

Monte Carlo simulation of stoquastic Hamiltonians (pp1122-1140)
Sergey Bravyi
Stoquastic Hamiltonians are characterized by the property that their off-diagonal matrix elements in the standard product basis are real and non-positive. Many interesting quantum models fall into this class including the Transverse field Ising Model (TIM), the Heisenberg model on bipartite graphs, and the bosonic Hubbard model. Here we consider the problem of estimating the ground state energy of a local stoquastic Hamiltonian $H$ with a promise that the ground state of $H$ has a non-negligible correlation with some `guiding' state that admits a concise classical description. A formalized version of this problem called Guided Stoquastic Hamiltonian is shown to be complete for the complexity class $\MA$ (a probabilistic analogue of $\NP$). To prove this result we employ the Projection Monte Carlo algorithm with a variable number of walkers. Secondly, we show that the ground state and thermal equilibrium properties of the ferromagnetic TIM can be simulated in polynomial time on a classical probabilistic computer. This result is based on the approximation algorithm for the classical ferromagnetic Ising model due to Jerrum and Sinclair (1993).

Entanglement in a linear coherent feedback chain of nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (pp1141-1164)
Zhan Shi and Hendra I. Nurdin
This paper is concerned with linear quantum networks of $N$ nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs), with $N$ up to 6, which are interconnected in a coherent feedback chain. Each network connects two communicating parties (Alice and Bob) over two transmission channels. In previous work we have shown that a dual-NOPA coherent feedback network generates better Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement (i.e., more two-mode squeezing) between its two outgoing Gaussian fields than a single NOPA, when the same total pump power is consumed and the systems undergo the same transmission losses over the same distance. This paper aims to analyze stability, EPR entanglement between two outgoing fields of interest, and bipartite entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states of cavity modes of the $N$-NOPA networks under the effect of transmission and amplification losses, as well as the effect of time delays on the outgoing fields. It is numerically shown that, in the absence of losses and delays, the network with more NOPAs in the chain requires less total pump power to generate the same degree of EPR entanglement. Moreover, we report on the internal entanglement synchronization that occurs in the steady state between certain pairs of Gaussian oscillator modes inside the NOPA cavities of the networks.

Thresholds for reduction-related entanglement criteria in quantum information theory (pp1165-1184)
Maria A. Jivulescu, Nicolae Lupa, and Ion Nechita
We consider random bipartite quantum states obtained by tracing out one subsystem from a random, uniformly distributed, tripartite pure quantum state. We compute thresholds for the dimension of the system being traced out, so that the resulting bipartite quantum state satisfies the reduction criterion in different asymptotic regimes. We consider as well the basis-independent version of the reduction criterion (the absolute reduction criterion), computing thresholds for the corresponding eigenvalue sets. We do the same for other sets relevant in the study of absolute separability, using techniques from random matrix theory. Finally, we gather and compare the known values for the thresholds corresponding to different entanglement criteria, and conclude with a list of open questions.

Quantum Gaussian channels with weak measurements (pp1185-1196)
Boaz Tamir and Eliahu Cohen
In this paper we perform a novel analysis of quantum Gaussian channels in the context of weak measurements. Suppose Alice sends classical information to Bob using a quantum channel. Suppose Bob is allowed to use only weak measurements, what would be the channel capacity? We formulate weak measurement theory in these terms and discuss the above question.

Perturbative gadgets without strong interactions (pp1197-1222)
Yudong Cao and Daniel Nagaj
Perturbative gadgets are used to construct a quantum Hamiltonian whose low-energy subspace approximates a given quantum $k$-local Hamiltonian up to an absolute error $\epsilon$. Typically, gadget constructions involve terms with large interaction strengths of order $\text{poly}(\epsilon^{-1})$. Here we present a 2-body gadget construction and prove that it approximates a Hamiltonian of interaction strength $\gamma = O(1)$ up to absolute error $\epsilon\ll\gamma$ using interactions of strength $O(\epsilon)$ instead of the usual inverse polynomial in $\epsilon$. A key component in our proof is a new condition for the convergence of the perturbation series, allowing our gadget construction to be applied in parallel on multiple many-body terms. We also discuss how to apply this gadget construction for approximating 3- and $k$-local Hamiltonians. The price we pay for using much weaker interactions is a large overhead in the number of ancillary qubits, and the number of interaction terms per particle, both of which scale as $O(\text{poly}(\epsilon^{-1}))$. Our strong-from-weak gadgets have their primary application in complexity theory (QMA hardness of restricted Hamiltonians, a generalized area law counterexample, gap amplification), but could also motivate practical implementations with several weak interactions simulating a much stronger quantum many-body interaction.

The impact of resource on remote quantum correlation Preparation (pp1223-1232)
Chengjun Wu, Bin Luo, and Hong Guo
When Alice and Bob share two pairs of quantum correlated states, Alice can remotely prepare quantum entanglement and quantum discord in Bob's side by measuring the parts in her side and telling Bob the measurement results by classical communication. For remote entanglement preparation, entanglement is necessary . We find that for some shared resources having the same amount of entanglement, when Bell measurement is used, the entanglement remotely prepared can be different, and more discord in the resources actually decreases the entanglement prepared. We also find that for some resources with more entanglement, the entanglement remotely prepared may be less. Therefore, we conclude that entanglement is a necessary resource but may not be the only resource responsible for the entanglement remotely prepared, and discord does not likely to assist this process. Also, for the preparation of discord, we find that some states with no entanglement could outperform entangled states.

Spatial search on grids with minimum memory (pp1233-1247)
Andris Ambainis, Renato Portugal, and Nikolay Nahimov
We study quantum algorithms for spatial search on finite dimensional grids. Patel \textit{et al.}~and Falk have proposed algorithms based on a quantum walk without a coin, with different operators applied at even and odd steps. Until now, such algorithms have been studied only using numerical simulations. In this paper, we present the first rigorous analysis for an algorithm of this type, showing that the optimal number of steps is $O(\sqrt{N\log N})$ and the success probability is $O(1/\log N)$, where $N$ is the number of vertices. This matches the performance achieved by algorithms that use other forms of quantum walks.

Limit distributions for different forms of four-state quantum walks on a two-dimensional lattice (pp1248-1258)
Takuya Machida, C.M. Chandrashekar, Norio Konno, and Thomas Busch
Long-time limit distributions are key quantities for understanding the asymptotic dynamics of quantum walks, and they are known for most forms of one-dimensional quantum walks using two-state coin systems. For two-dimensional quantum walks using a four-state coin system, however, the only known limit distribution is for a walk using a parameterized Grover coin operation and analytical complexities have been a major obstacle for obtaining long-time limit distributions for other coins. In this work however, we present two new types of long-time limit distributions for walks using different forms of coin-flip operations in a four-state coin system. This opens the road towards understanding the dynamics and asymptotic behaviour for higher state coin system from a mathematical view point.

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